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    預付費消費亂象何時休
    作者:中國板報網    來源:www.cqrgzs.com    點擊數:    更新時間:2019/1/25

      吳女士最近很窩心。她告訴記者,前不久在家門口辦了張1000元的洗車卡,這兩天再去洗車,發現已人去場空。吳女士這1000元生生打了水漂。

      如今,去理發店、美容院、健身會所辦預付卡才能優惠消費已是常態。記者住所附近的理發店,預付3000元可打半折,預付2000元可打六折……總之,錢預付的越多折扣越大。近年來,過度發卡,服務減少,裁撤網點甚至關門跑路而導致預付卡成為廢卡,消費者難以求償維權事件屢屢發生。“相關法律滯后,監管缺失等因素導致了預付費消費市場亂象叢生。”中國法學會消費者權益保護法研究會副秘書長、北京陽光消費大數據研究院首席分析師陳音江接受《法制日報》記者采訪時如是說。

      預付費消費存十大陷阱

      中國消費者協會2012年—2018年公布的《全國消協組織受理投訴情況分析》顯示,預付費消費一直是消費者投訴的熱點。據北京陽光消費大數據技術研究院統計,2018年1月1日零時—9月30日24時,共監測到有關預付費消費方面的輿情信息209265條,其中,敏感(負面)消息85464條,占比40.84%。

      “近期ofo退款事件實際上也屬于此類情況。這些負面消息極易引發群體性投訴事件,應該引起高度重視。”陳音江說,目前預付費消費主要存在誘騙消費、霸王條款等10大問題:

      主體經營不合法。在缺乏監管的情況下,許多商家不展示相關經營證件,尤其是美容美發企業和教育培訓機構。其中超范圍經營的問題也比較突出。

      誘騙消費。在預付費消費模式中,大幅折扣和免費體驗是誘騙消費的兩大殺手锏。不少商家利用口頭夸大或虛假宣傳,給消費者制造一種“過了這村兒沒這店兒”的假象,誘導消費者購買預付卡。

      霸王條款。在預付費消費實踐中,經營者一般不會與消費者就商品或者服務內容進行協商,消費者只能就經營者提供的內容選擇全部接受或不接受,經營者也不會提供書面合同,往往只是發放“會員卡”,而“會員卡”中雙方權利義務明顯不對等,限制消費者權益條款繁多,諸如“有效期過,概不退款”“購物卡遺失不補”等。

      終止消費退卡難。由于主客觀情況的變化,消費者不想或不能再使用預付卡,希望取出卡內剩余的費用時,商家往往會以消費者單方違約為由,拒不退還卡內剩余金額。

      停業關門追償難。部分發卡商家不講誠信,在不發布任何清償通知的情況下,關門走人,嚴重侵害持卡消費者的合法權益。特別是部分商家出售消費卡的目的并不是從事經營活動,而是利用預付費消費模式,吸收大量消費者辦卡資金,然后攜款逃逸。

      店面易人消費難。預付卡消費中,經營者因自身發展需要進行合并、分立、轉讓,經營主體變更即合同主體的變更,會發生合同權利義務的移轉,移轉給新的債權人或債務人。然而卻經常出現新的經營主體拒絕消費者繼續按原來條件使用預付卡的情況。

      透明消費難。辦卡時候說得很好,辦卡之后商家提供的商品或服務卻大打折扣。如,售后服務降級,使用產品以次充好,辦卡后漲價等,使消費卡超過服務時間而失去價值。

      個人隱私保密難。消費者在辦理預付費消費卡時,通常都會被要求填寫個人信息,如身份信息、電話號碼等。一些不良商家為利益擅自向第三方轉賣消費者個人資料。

      預付卡轉讓難。消費者辦卡時,商家一般會口頭承諾允許轉讓,但實際轉卡時卻往往無法實現。部分商家在轉讓預付費卡時,收取高額更名費、轉卡費、停卡費等附加費用。

      維權舉證難。預付費消費是一種合同消費,但大多數預付費消費都不簽訂合同,雙方權利義務多采取口頭形式約定,商家很少提供書面合同,一旦發生消費糾紛,消費者往往因缺乏有力證據而處于維權難的境地。

      規范預付費消費未有統一法律

      記者注意到,目前我國對預付費消費還沒有統一的法律法規,預付費消費的規定主要散見于民法總則、合同法、消費者權益保護法、單用途商業預付卡管理辦法(試行)、非金融機構支付服務管理辦法等法律法規之中。

      “目前關于預付費消費的法律規范都過于原則,沒有結合預付費消費的特點針對性地對發卡主體和發卡行為進行規范,從而導致在規范預付卡的過程中缺乏可行性與時效性,對消費者的保護也缺乏力度。”陳音江坦陳,民法總則多為原則性規定,對于有著特殊性的預付費消費糾紛往往很難適用。合同法、消費者權益保護法在解決預付卡消費糾紛方面顯得捉襟見肘。

      陳音江介紹,目前我國對于預付費市場的監管采取的單用途預付卡和多用途預付卡分開監管的模式。2011年國務院辦公廳轉發了中國人民銀行等七部委聯合制定了《關于規范商業預付卡管理意見》(以下簡稱《意見》),規定由中國人民銀行主要負責監管多用途預付卡的發售。《意見》規定的商業預付卡購卡實名制、商業預付卡非現金購卡制及商業預付卡限額發行制度,只需要簡單的拆分和多次購買就可進行規避。同時《意見》沒有規定相應的懲罰措施,使其對商業預付卡的規制流于表面,操作性不強。

      商務部出臺的《單用途商業預付卡管理辦法(試行)》規定,企業發行預付卡需在發行后30日內到商務部門備案,并按預收資金的一定比例向商業銀行存入存管資金。可現實中,企業備不備案基本靠自愿自律,資金使用并無跟蹤監管,實踐證明存在諸多漏洞并嚴重滯后。

      預付費消費需建系統監管體系

      “預付費消費作為一種新型消費模式,在拉動消費、促進經濟發展的同時,不可避免地存在一系列問題。因此,規范預付費消費勢在必行,有必要建立全面系統的監管體系。”陳音江建議,需從立法、執法、司法角度規范預付卡的發行與使用,充分保證消費者在預付費消費過程中的合法權益,同時從社會角度加強預付費消費的自律規范與增強消費者權益保護意識。

      法律或行政部門應規定和制定標準化的合同文本,或要求經營者必須擬定格式合同。該格式合同在審查合法的基礎上,在監管機構進行備案。這樣在消費過程中可以有效防止霸王條款,未消費余額退還等問題。

      從我國現有的法律法規來看,預付費消費的監管主要由政府牽頭,商務、市場監管、財政、稅務、銀行、審計等多個部門共同監管,雖然現有的監管體系不能有效實現監管,但專門成立監管部門又不符和我國情,因此,有必要建立全面系統的監管體系,多部門協調配合,并提升立法層次,對多用途預付費消費卡的監管主體進行明確,使預付費消費的各個領域都實現監管。

      專門研究消費者權益保護的陳音江還建議,由于預付卡消費是一種高風險的負債經營模式,對發卡商家存在“借發卡之名行圈錢之實”等行為,應依照消費者權益保護法規定,讓經營者承擔懲罰性賠償責任。

    (文章來源:法制日報)

    預付費消費亂象何時休

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